Energy storage systems have emerged to help solve the challenge of renewable energy intermittency. Intermittency means that renewable electricity is not produced when the sun does not shine or when the wind does not blow, putting pressure on grid networks to match energy supply and demand in real-time. Energy storage uses cost-effective batteries to work alongside renewables to store energy for usage later. Energy storage infrastructure is a rapid-dispatch solution to balance grid pressures as renewable energy demand soars and conventional power such as coal-fired power plants are being phased out.